Iris classification with scikit-learn

Here we use the well-known Iris species dataset to illustrate how SHAP can explain the output of many different model types, from k-nearest neighbors, to neural networks. This dataset is very small, with only a 150 samples. We use a random set of 130 for training and 20 for testing the models. Because this is a small dataset with only a few features we use the entire training dataset for the background. In problems with more features we would want to pass only the median of the training dataset, or weighted k-medians. While we only have a few samples, the prediction problem is fairly easy and all methods acheive perfect accuracy. What's interesting is how different methods sometimes rely on different sets of features for their predictions.

Load the data

In [1]:
import sklearn
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
import numpy as np
import shap
import time

X_train,X_test,Y_train,Y_test = train_test_split(*shap.datasets.iris(), test_size=0.2, random_state=0)

# rather than use the whole training set to estimate expected values, we could summarize with
# a set of weighted kmeans, each weighted by the number of points they represent. But this dataset
# is so small we don't worry about it
#X_train_summary = shap.kmeans(X_train, 50)

def print_accuracy(f):
    print("Accuracy = {0}%".format(100*np.sum(f(X_test) == Y_test)/len(Y_test)))
    time.sleep(0.5) # to let the print get out before any progress bars

shap.initjs()

K-nearest neighbors

In [2]:
knn = sklearn.neighbors.KNeighborsClassifier()
knn.fit(X_train, Y_train)

print_accuracy(knn.predict)
Accuracy = 96.66666666666667%

Explain a single prediction from the test set

In [3]:
explainer = shap.KernelExplainer(knn.predict_proba, X_train)
shap_values = explainer.shap_values(X_test.iloc[0,:])
shap.force_plot(explainer.expected_value[0], shap_values[0], X_test.iloc[0,:])
Using 120 background data samples could cause slower run times. Consider using shap.kmeans(data, K) to summarize the background as K weighted samples.
Out[3]:
Visualization omitted, Javascript library not loaded!
Have you run `initjs()` in this notebook? If this notebook was from another user you must also trust this notebook (File -> Trust notebook). If you are viewing this notebook on github the Javascript has been stripped for security.

Explain all the predictions in the test set

In [4]:
shap_values = explainer.shap_values(X_test)
shap.force_plot(explainer.expected_value[0], shap_values[0], X_test)
100%|██████████| 30/30 [00:00<00:00, 38.78it/s]
Out[4]:
Visualization omitted, Javascript library not loaded!
Have you run `initjs()` in this notebook? If this notebook was from another user you must also trust this notebook (File -> Trust notebook). If you are viewing this notebook on github the Javascript has been stripped for security.

Support vector machine with a linear kernel

In [5]:
svc_linear = sklearn.svm.SVC(kernel='linear', probability=True)
svc_linear.fit(X_train, Y_train)
print_accuracy(svc_linear.predict)

# explain all the predictions in the test set
explainer = shap.KernelExplainer(svc_linear.predict_proba, X_train)
shap_values = explainer.shap_values(X_test)
shap.force_plot(explainer.expected_value[0], shap_values[0], X_test)
Accuracy = 100.0%
Using 120 background data samples could cause slower run times. Consider using shap.kmeans(data, K) to summarize the background as K weighted samples.
100%|██████████| 30/30 [00:00<00:00, 38.97it/s]
Out[5]:
Visualization omitted, Javascript library not loaded!
Have you run `initjs()` in this notebook? If this notebook was from another user you must also trust this notebook (File -> Trust notebook). If you are viewing this notebook on github the Javascript has been stripped for security.

Support vector machine with a radial basis function kernel

In [6]:
svc_linear = sklearn.svm.SVC(kernel='rbf', probability=True)
svc_linear.fit(X_train, Y_train)
print_accuracy(svc_linear.predict)

# explain all the predictions in the test set
explainer = shap.KernelExplainer(svc_linear.predict_proba, X_train)
shap_values = explainer.shap_values(X_test)
shap.force_plot(explainer.expected_value[0], shap_values[0], X_test)
Accuracy = 100.0%
Using 120 background data samples could cause slower run times. Consider using shap.kmeans(data, K) to summarize the background as K weighted samples.
100%|██████████| 30/30 [00:00<00:00, 41.21it/s]
Out[6]:
Visualization omitted, Javascript library not loaded!
Have you run `initjs()` in this notebook? If this notebook was from another user you must also trust this notebook (File -> Trust notebook). If you are viewing this notebook on github the Javascript has been stripped for security.

Logistic regression

In [7]:
linear_lr = sklearn.linear_model.LogisticRegression()
linear_lr.fit(X_train, Y_train)
print_accuracy(linear_lr.predict)

# explain all the predictions in the test set
explainer = shap.KernelExplainer(linear_lr.predict_proba, X_train)
shap_values = explainer.shap_values(X_test)
shap.force_plot(explainer.expected_value[0], shap_values[0], X_test)
Accuracy = 96.66666666666667%
Using 120 background data samples could cause slower run times. Consider using shap.kmeans(data, K) to summarize the background as K weighted samples.
100%|██████████| 30/30 [00:00<00:00, 34.30it/s]
Out[7]:
Visualization omitted, Javascript library not loaded!
Have you run `initjs()` in this notebook? If this notebook was from another user you must also trust this notebook (File -> Trust notebook). If you are viewing this notebook on github the Javascript has been stripped for security.

Decision tree

In [8]:
import sklearn.tree 
dtree = sklearn.tree.DecisionTreeClassifier(min_samples_split=2)
dtree.fit(X_train, Y_train)
print_accuracy(dtree.predict)

# explain all the predictions in the test set
explainer = shap.KernelExplainer(dtree.predict_proba, X_train)
shap_values = explainer.shap_values(X_test)
shap.force_plot(explainer.expected_value[0], shap_values[0], X_test)
Accuracy = 100.0%
Using 120 background data samples could cause slower run times. Consider using shap.kmeans(data, K) to summarize the background as K weighted samples.
100%|██████████| 30/30 [00:00<00:00, 40.56it/s]
Out[8]:
Visualization omitted, Javascript library not loaded!
Have you run `initjs()` in this notebook? If this notebook was from another user you must also trust this notebook (File -> Trust notebook). If you are viewing this notebook on github the Javascript has been stripped for security.

Random forest

In [9]:
from sklearn.ensemble import RandomForestClassifier
rforest = RandomForestClassifier(n_estimators=100, max_depth=None, min_samples_split=2, random_state=0)
rforest.fit(X_train, Y_train)
print_accuracy(rforest.predict)

# explain all the predictions in the test set
explainer = shap.KernelExplainer(rforest.predict_proba, X_train)
shap_values = explainer.shap_values(X_test)
shap.force_plot(explainer.expected_value[0], shap_values[0], X_test)
Accuracy = 100.0%
Using 120 background data samples could cause slower run times. Consider using shap.kmeans(data, K) to summarize the background as K weighted samples.
100%|██████████| 30/30 [00:01<00:00, 21.58it/s]
Out[9]:
Visualization omitted, Javascript library not loaded!
Have you run `initjs()` in this notebook? If this notebook was from another user you must also trust this notebook (File -> Trust notebook). If you are viewing this notebook on github the Javascript has been stripped for security.

Neural network

In [10]:
from sklearn.neural_network import MLPClassifier
nn = MLPClassifier(solver='lbfgs', alpha=1e-1, hidden_layer_sizes=(5, 2), random_state=0)
nn.fit(X_train, Y_train)
print_accuracy(nn.predict)

# explain all the predictions in the test set
explainer = shap.KernelExplainer(nn.predict_proba, X_train)
shap_values = explainer.shap_values(X_test)
shap.force_plot(explainer.expected_value[0], shap_values[0], X_test)
Accuracy = 100.0%
Using 120 background data samples could cause slower run times. Consider using shap.kmeans(data, K) to summarize the background as K weighted samples.
100%|██████████| 30/30 [00:00<00:00, 46.62it/s]
Out[10]:
Visualization omitted, Javascript library not loaded!
Have you run `initjs()` in this notebook? If this notebook was from another user you must also trust this notebook (File -> Trust notebook). If you are viewing this notebook on github the Javascript has been stripped for security.